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Sewage Treatment Plants (STP)

ABC and Engineering Design, Fabricate, Supply, Erection and Commissioning Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) for treating sewage generated by Industry, large colonies, Hotels, Hospitals, IT Parks and commercial buildings.

Now a days the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) became statutory requirement of all the State Pollution Control Boards, everybody, whether Hotelier or Industrialist were looking for economical, easy to install and operate compact type Sewage Treatment Plant. Since the land is extremely expensive, very few industries could afford the large treatment units as recommended by most of the Consultants.

Pollution Control Board has periodically published various guidelines to achieve best possible effluent parameters after treatment at a reasonable cost in an effective manner. Various technologies are developed to cater to sewage treatment needs based on Aerobic, Anaerobic or combination of aerobic/anaerobic process.

Following are the conventional technologies which were popular in India:

  • Activated Sludge Process
  • Sequential Batch Reactor

Following are the Advanced Technologies which are popular in India:

  • Sequential Batch Reactor (Improved)
  • Combitreat Technology
  • Improved Biotower

We also use:

  • ASP : Activated Sludge Process
  • MBBR : Moving Bed Bio reactor
  • SAFF : Submerged aerated Fixed Film
  • SBR : Sequential Bioreactor
  • MBR : Membrane Bio Reactor

Effluent Treatment Plants (ETP)

We Design, Manufacture, Supply, Erection and Commissioning Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) on Turnkey basis for various types and natures of wastewaters, effluents which combines advanced physico-chemical treatment processes with tertiary polishing system for the removal of organic, inorganic, oil and grease, heavy metals & suspended solids.

Industrial (including agro-industrial) wastewaters have very varied compositions compared to Sewage depending on the type of industry and materials processed. In some cases, the TSS, BOD and COD values may be in the tens of thousands mgs per litre along with high concentration of dissolved metal/ salts, toxic material and radioactive material etc.

 

The effluent treatment involves one or more of the following processes :

  • CEqualization/Neutralization
  • Solids Removal
  • Biological Treatment (Aerobic/Anaerobic) process / Chemical Treatment
  • Disinfection

Water Treatment Plant (WTP)

Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly are transmitted in contaminated fresh water. Water may be polluted by physical, chemical and bacteriological agents. Therefore protected water supply become essential to maintain public health of a community.

 

Due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, a surge in demand of potable water for domestic purpose is noticed by civic authorities. Therefore identification of water source for water supply and making suitable arrangements for treatment to make fit the available resource for consumption has become necessary. Depending on constituents in water at source a suitable treatment is proposed for water treatment.

  • Improved design collaboration within office
  • Quantity take-off and BoQ preparation work can be done through BIM model in most accurate and reliable manner.
  • All members of the project team work together on the same information
  • Better design insight through in-process visualization and analysis
  • Complete Documentation and Presentation
  • "Clash Detection" to create Coordinated drawings between various disciplines
  • Save time and costs during Construction

Total dissolved solids (TDS)

According to World health organization (WHO) Total dissolved solids (TDS) are inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter present in solution in water

 

  • 1. Reverse Osmosis (R.O.) Reverse Osmosis removes TDS by forcing the water, under pressure, through a synthetic membrane.
  • 2. Distillation. The process involves boiling water to produce water vapour. ...
  • 3. Deionisation (DI) ...
  • 4. Taste and health. ...
  • 5. Hardness. ...
  • 6. Pools and Spas.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 C and is often used as a surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water. BOD can be used as a gauge of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants. BOD is similar in function to chemical oxygen demand (COD), in that both measure the amount of organic compounds in water. However, COD is less specific, since it measures everything that can be chemically oxidized, rather than just levels of biodegradable organic matter. Current efforts include the following:

 

Wastewater Treatment

Given the energy and water usage associated with wastewater treatment facilities, there is significant potential to improve operations to make them more sustainable and secure. SERDP and ESTCP efforts are focused on developing sustainable wastewater treatment facilities for the military's FOBs and developing innovative, energy efficient, low maintenance systems for decentralized treatment and recycling of wastewater on fixed military installations in the United States.

Drinking Water Treatment

Drinking water treatment at BoD installations must meet the same requirements as standards set for other public water systems. SERDP and ESTCP efforts are focused on developing treatment technologies for removal of contaminants in groundwater that are present in very low concentrations (low ppb). Treatment of contaminants such as perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) has been the focus of recent efforts.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

Chemical Oxygen Demand or COD is a measurement of the oxygen required to oxidize soluble and particulate organic matter in water.

 

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?

Chemical Oxygen Demand is an important water quality parameter because, similar to BOD, it provides an index to assess the effect discharged wastewater will have on the receiving environment. Higher COD levels mean a greater amount of oxidizable organic material in the sample, which will reduce dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. A reduction in DO can lead to anaerobic conditions, which is deleterious to higher aquatic life forms. The COD test is often used as an alternate to BOD due to shorter length of testing time.

LABORATORY COD

A common method for Chemical Oxygen Demand analysis is Method 410.4. The method involves using a strong oxidizing chemical, potassium dichromate Cr2O72-, to oxidize the organic matter in solution to carbon dioxide and water under acidic conditions. Often, the test also involves a silver compound to encourage oxidation of certain organic compounds and mercury to reduce the interference from oxidation of chloride ions. The sample is then digested for approximately 2 hours at 150C. The amount of oxygen required is calculated from the quantity of chemical oxidant consumed.

pH

pH is a measure of how acidic/basic water is. The range goes from 0 - 14, with 7 being neutral. pHs of less than 7 indicate acidity, whereas a pH of greater than 7 indicates a base. pH is really a measure of the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the water. Water that has more free hydrogen ions is acidic, whereas water that has more free hydroxyl ions is basic. Since pH can be affected by chemicals in the water, pH is an important indicator of water that is changing chemically. pH is reported in "logarithmic units". Each number represents a 10-fold change in the acidity/basicness of the water. Water with a pH of five is ten times more acidic than water having a pH of six.

Importance of pH

The pH of water determines the solubility (amount that can be dissolved in the water) and biological availability (amount that can be utilized by aquatic life) of chemical constituents such as nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) and heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, etc.). For example, in addition to affecting how much and what form of phosphorus is most abundant in the water, pH also determines whether aquatic life can use it. In the case of heavy metals, the degree to which they are soluble determines their toxicity. Metals tend to be more toxic at lower pH because they are more soluble.

Total suspended solids (TSS)

Total suspended solids (TSS) is the dry-weight of suspended particles, that are not dissolved, in a sample of water that can be trapped by a filter that is analyzed using a filtration apparatus. It is a water quality parameter used to assess the quality of a specimen of any type of water or water body, ocean water for example, or wastewater after treatment in a wastewater treatment plant. It is listed as a conventional pollutant in the U.S. Clean Water Act.[1] Total dissolved solids is another parameter acquired through a separate analysis which is also used to determine water quality based on the total substances that are fully dissolved within the water, rather than undissolved suspended particles. TSS was previously called non-filterable residue (NFR), but was changed to TSS because of ambiguity in other scientific disciplines.


Oil and Grease

Oil and grease includes fats, oils, waxes, and other related constituents found in water, generally wastewater. If these compounds are not removed before discharge of treated wastewater, oil and grease can interfere with biological life in surface waters and create unsightly films. Fats and oils are contributed to domestic wastewater in butter, lard, margarine, and vegetable fats and oils. Fats are also commonly found in meats, in the germinal area of cereals, in seeds, in nuts, and in certain fruits. The low solubility of fats and oils reduces their rate of microbial degradation. Kerosene, lubricating, and road oils are derived from petroleum and coal tar and contain essentially carbon and hydrogen. These oils can reach sewers in considerable volume from shops, garages, and streets. The mineral oils coat surfaces to a greater extent than fats, oils, and soaps, and the particles interfere with biological action and cause maintenance problems.


Dissolved oxygen (DO)

Dissolved oxygen refers to the level of free, non-compound oxygen present in water or other liquids. It is an important parameter in assessing water quality because of its influence on the organisms living within a body of water. In limnology (the study of lakes), dissolved oxygen is an essential factor second only to water itself . A dissolved oxygen level that is too high or too low can harm aquatic life and affect water quality. Non-compound oxygen, or free oxygen (O2), is oxygen that is not bonded to any other element. Dissolved oxygen is the presence of these free O2 molecules within water.The bonded oxygen molecule in water (H2O) is in a compound and does not count toward dissolved oxygen levels. One can imagine that free oxygen molecules dissolve in water much the way salt or sugar does when it is stirred .